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Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Oct 21, 2023  4 months, 6 hours, 3 minutes ago

BREAKING COVID-19 News! Study Shows SARS-CoV-2 Infections Increases Risk Of Heart Tumors By 1.5 Fold!

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BREAKING COVID-19 News! Study Shows SARS-CoV-2 Infections Increases Risk Of Heart Tumors By 1.5 Fold!
Nikhil Prasad  Fact checked by:Thailand Medical News Team Oct 21, 2023  4 months, 6 hours, 3 minutes ago
COVID-19 News: In the ever-evolving landscape of COVID-19 research, a new and concerning revelation has emerged: a study conducted by the Almazov National Medical Research Centre in Russia, in collaboration with I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and the Institute of Immunology in Russia, indicates a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of developing heart tumors in patients who have had COVID-19. This alarming finding sheds light on the potential long-term health implications of the virus. Also concerning is the fact that many are not even aware that they have heart tumors developing in them as in the initial periods, there are no symptoms or visible signs or manifestations until the tumors reach a certain dangerous point!


 
This COVID-19 News report delves into the details of this groundbreaking study, its implications for public health, and the complex interplay between COVID-19 and cardiovascular issues.
 
COVID-19 and Its Impact on Long-Term Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented global health crisis, and our understanding of the virus and its consequences is continuously evolving. While the acute phase of the disease primarily involves respiratory symptoms, a growing body of evidence has revealed its long-term impact on various organs, including the cardiovascular system.
 
Even after recovering from the acute phase of the disease, many individuals face a higher risk of developing cardiovascular problems such as heart rhythm disturbances, myocarditis, pericarditis, blood clots, strokes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. These issues have been observed not only in patients with severe COVID-19 but also in those who experienced mild or latent infections. It is becoming increasingly evident that COVID-19 may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases "de novo."
 
Endotheliitis: A Potential Mechanism
One proposed mechanism for COVID-19's impact on the cardiovascular system is endotheliitis. SARS-CoV-2 has the ability to suppress the immune response and cause lymphopenia, characterized by reduced levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. These immune cells play a crucial role in mounting an effective response against the virus. Additionally, the virus may cause direct, long-term damage to cardiomyocytes due to a compromised T-cell immune response. This damage could lead to inflammation in the heart, further complicating the relationship between COVID-19 and cardiovascular issues.
 
The Link Between COVID-19 and Cancer
Emerging evidence also suggests a potential link between COVID-19 and long-term cancer risk. Viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, have the capacity to damage host DNA, suppress immune responses, and disrupt apoptosis (programmed cell death). The virus contains proteins that influence various cellular processes, and this has led some researchers to propose that COVID-19 may contribute to cancer development and progression.
 
Mendelian randomization studies have indicated an increased risk of specific cancers, such as HER2-positive breast cancer, esophageal, gastric, and colon cancer, in individuals with a genetic predisposition to severe COVID-19. This research underscores the intricate relationship between the virus and cancer-related pathways.
 
Cardiovascular Issues and Cancer: Common Threads
The connection between COVID-19, cardiovascular problems, and cancer is not coincidental. Several factors tie them together:
 
-Cytokines: In COVID-19, elevated levels of cytokines like IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α are observed. These cytokines play a role in the immune response but can also promote tumor genesis. Furthermore, the depletion of T-cells, activation of oncogenic pathways, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) depletion may increase cancer risk.
 
-DNA Damage and Carcinogenesis: COVID-19 can lead to DNA damage, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which are known factors in carcinogenesis. The involvement of SARS-CoV-2 in the degradation of tumor suppressor proteins like p53 adds another layer to the connection between the virus and cancer.

-Shared Mechanisms: COVID-19 and cancer share similarities in their immune responses, antigenic stimulation, and inflammation, further intertwining their effects on the human body.
 
-Host-Virus Interactions: Viruses like SARS-CoV-2 can persist in the host, potentially causing long-term damage. This persistence can lead to an inflammatory environment that fosters cancer development.
 
The Study and Its Implications
The Almazov National Medical Research Centre's study reveals a concerning trend. The researchers observed a 1.5-fold increase in the number of heart tumors by 2023, with a significant rise in myxomas, a type of benign cardiac tumor. Notably, this increase was not correlated with vaccination status or demographic factors, suggesting a direct link between COVID-19 and the rise in heart tumors.
 
Immunohistochemical examination found the expression of spike SARS-CoV-2 in tumor cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages in 10 out of 11 heart tumors. This discovery raises questions about the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in endothelium and macrophages and its potential role in the development of cardiac neoplasms.
 
The Rise of Rare Cardiac Tumors
Intriguingly, the study noted not only an increase in myxomas but also the emergence of rare cardiac tumors, such as myxofibrosarcomas and chondrosarcoma. Myxomas, traditionally believed to arise from primitive pluripotent mesenchymal cells, displayed expression of genes encoding cardiac progenitor markers. This observation suggests a complex differentiation process within cardiac myxomas.
 
Chondrosarcoma, an extremely rare tumor for the heart, is believed to originate from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells undergoing malignant cartilage differentiation. The study highlighted the unique characteristics of chondrosarcoma in the atria, emphasizing the importance of understanding the histogenesis of cardiac tumors.
 
Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammatory Environment
The presence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in tumor cells, macrophages, and vascular endothelial cells underscores the role of endothelial dysfunction in the development of cardiac neoplasms. Endotheliitis, which can be caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a known complication of COVID-19. The virus's persistence within the endothelium may elevate the risk of tumor formation, contributing to endotheliocyte dysplasia and the emergence of atypical cells.
 
The Role of Macrophages
The study also discovered the expression of SARS-CoV-2 in tumor macrophages. Previous research has suggested an increase in macrophages in the myocardium during acute coronavirus infections, and this study further supports the idea that these immune cells can serve as carriers of the virus. The potential oncogenic mechanisms related to these findings are complex and require further investigation.
 
Blood Clots and Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19
The study's results challenge previous data that suggested no increase in heart tumors in Europe. The discrepancy may be attributed to differences in the analysis period, emphasizing the importance of long-term studies. It is possible that an increase in visits for cardiovascular issues after COVID-19 led to the early detection of heart tumors.
 
Furthermore, the study draws attention to the role of blood clot formation in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. Aberrant amyloid fibrin microclots have been linked to the etiology of these long-term symptoms, potentially causing autoimmune responses. The virus's impact on the clotting cascade may lead to misdiagnoses of cardiovascular issues, complicating the clinical picture for some patients.
 
Future Research and Concluding Remarks
The discovery of SARS-CoV-2 persistence in endothelium, macrophages, and tumor cells raises important questions about the long-term consequences of COVID-19. The increase in heart tumors, especially cardiac myxomas, after the pandemic suggests a concerning trend that warrants further research and evidence gathering.
 
Understanding the complex interplay between COVID-19, cardiovascular issues, and cancer is essential for improving patient care and public health strategies.
 
Future research should delve into shared molecular pathways and potential connections between COVID-19 and tumor initiation. The causal relationship between COVID-19 and cancer remains an open question, but the evidence of their interplay is undeniable.
 
In conclusion, this study highlights the need for continued vigilance among healthcare professionals regarding the long-term effects of COVID-19. The potential for an increased risk of cardiac neoplasms in COVID-19 patients, as suggested by this research, underscores the importance of further investigation and the pursuit of new evidence. The evolving knowledge of COVID-19's impact on our health underscores the significance of ongoing research to inform our understanding of this complex and multifaceted disease.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Life
https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/13/10/2087

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