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Phytochemicals - Radiation Fallout  Jun 24, 2023  7 months, 3 weeks, 5 days, 22 hours, 58 minutes ago

Phytochemicals As Radioprotectors Against A Radiation Fallout From A Nuclear War Especially With Way Things Are Escalating In Russia!

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Phytochemicals As Radioprotectors Against A Radiation Fallout From A Nuclear War Especially With Way Things Are Escalating In Russia!
Phytochemicals - Radiation Fallout  Jun 24, 2023  7 months, 3 weeks, 5 days, 22 hours, 58 minutes ago
Kindly Note To Procure Whatever Necessary Phytochemicals You Might Need Prior To A Nuclear Incident And Not After!
 
Phytochemicals: As a result of the uncertain times that we currently live in, it is always best to prepare for a potential nuclear war especially with the current developments taking place in Russia. If you are one of the few lucky ones that survive, its best to know how to deal with the radiation fallout and to ensure that you have already stockpiled on the necessary items needed in advance including a variety of easily accessible and cheap phytochemicals from plants.


 
A radiation fallout from a nuclear war poses significant risks to biological systems. The resulting damage can manifest as inflammation, fibrosis, atrophy, and other harmful conditions, triggered by the activation or inhibition of specific signaling pathways. One of the primary mechanisms behind these radiation-induced injuries is the generation of free radical species, which release signal mediators and unleash their destructive effects.
 
The hazardous effects of ionizing radiation have garnered increasing public interest in recent years, prompting scientists to delve deeper into understanding its consequences. With ionizing radiation found in nuclear power, agriculture, and medicine, and off course weapons, it is crucial to comprehend its impact on biological systems at the cellular, tissue, and systemic levels. While low levels of radiation exposure can be managed by the body's inherent defense mechanisms, unavoidable exposures in scenarios such as nuclear war can overwhelm these natural safeguards. This is where the immense potential for harm lies. Radiation exposure induces the generation of harmful substances, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which cause DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and the release of signal mediators such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. These molecular players activate paracrine and endocrine signaling pathways, leading to damage in target cells and what is known as radiation-induced bystander effects. Extensive research has shown that perturbations in signaling pathways within cancer cells play a crucial role in their sensitivity to ionizing radiation.
 
Different tissues and organs exhibit varying levels of susceptibility to radiation damage. For instance, the gastrointestinal system, characterized by rapidly dividing cells, is highly vulnerable to radiation-induced injuries. Inflammation, fibrosis, atrophy, genomic instability, apoptosis, necrosis, and oncogenic transformation are some of the hallmarks of radiation injuries, all of which are mediated by specific signaling pathways.
 
Over the past decade, researchers have identified synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds with potential for use in radiation medicine. Amifostine, the first FDA-approved chemical agent, has shown clinical efficacy in protecting normal tissues from radiological insults. However, due to the inherent toxicity and high cost of synthetic radioprotectors, the search for alternative agents has intensified.
 
Recent studies have revealed that naturally occurring compounds, particularly rong>Phytochemicals, hold great promise in modulating signaling pathways. Epidemiological evidence indicates that certain phytochemicals, when consumed, can affect multiple signaling pathways and reduce the risk associated with radiation damage. The antioxidant properties of phytochemicals make them particularly interesting for radioprotection, making them the focus of this article based on study findings by researchers from India.
 
Exposure to radiation triggers a cascade of biological consequences, including inflammation, radiation-induced fibrosis, carcinogenesis, and cell death. These effects can be either direct or indirect. Direct damage occurs when radiation interacts with DNA, causing breaks in the DNA strands. Indirect damage, on the other hand, arises from the radiolysis of water, which generates free radical species like ROS. These highly reactive oxygen free radicals can induce DNA lesions, leading to DNA mutation and genome instability.
 
Furthermore, ROS and other radiation-induced products stimulate the release of various cytokines, resulting in local or systemic effects throughout the body.

Radiation therapy is often combined with surgery and chemotherapy, with approximately half of cancer patients receiving radiation treatment. Despite the random nature of radiation reactions, the impact of radiation follows a sequence-specific pattern, activating multiple signaling targets. Signaling pathways such as ATM/TP53, MAPK, and NFkB are known to alter the expression of several effector genes, influencing various cellular responses.
 
Phytochemicals, known for their positive effects on biological systems, play significant roles in the treatment and management of various diseases, including cancer treatment involving chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Due to their inherent antioxidant properties, phytochemicals can scavenge free radicals and initiate signals in response to electrophile and chemical stress, thereby activating or inhibiting various signaling pathways. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, which is linked to detoxifying enzymes, transporters, and stress defense molecules, can be activated by phytochemicals to counteract ROS, RNS, and other reactive carcinogenic metabolites. Existing evidence demonstrates that phytochemicals can modulate multiple signaling pathways in response to radiation-induced stress.
 
Numerous phytochemicals have shown potential as radioprotectors through their diverse mechanisms of action. For example, apigenin, found in dietary sources, has demonstrated radioprotective effects in lymphocytes, keratinocytes, and mouse models.
 
Hesperidin, a compound found in citrus fruits, has been shown to modulate NFκB and exhibit radioprotective effects. Similarly, compounds like EGCG, pterostilbene, ATRA, and curcumin have also been found to target the NFκB pathway, making them potential candidates for radioprotection.
 
Fisetin, a flavone found in various plants, has been found to inhibit Wnt signaling and decrease tumor cell invasiveness.
 
Lycopene have been found to activate Nrf2 and induce the expression of antioxidant enzymes, providing protection against oxidative damage induced by radiation. Lycopene disrupts the interaction between Nrf2 and its repressor protein, Keap1, leading to the translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus and the subsequent expression of cytoprotective genes.
 
Betulinic acid, a triterpene, acts as a radiosensitizer in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions.
 
Ascorbic acid, when administered prior to gamma radiation exposure, reduces radiation lethality and enhances mouse survival.
 
Caffeine, when given as a pretreatment, significantly inhibits the formation of radiation-induced micronuclei.
 
Curcumin, a natural phenol, reduces radiation-induced genotoxicity, clastogenicity, ROS production, and lipid peroxidation.
 
Resveratol, a phytoalexin, exhibits free radical scavenging activity and is radioprotective against ionizing radiation. Lycopene, a carotenoid, possesses free radical scavenging abilities and effectively combats radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations.
 
Sesamol, a nutritional phenolic compound, protects against radiation-induced genotoxicity, intestinal injury, and hematopoietic injury due to its antioxidant properties.
 
Additionally, compounds such as genistein, vanillin, hesperidin, eugenol, vinblastine, vincristine, orientin, vicenin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, trigonelline, myricetin, and naringin have exhibited antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-mutagenic, and radioprotective activities.
 
Unlocking the potential of phytochemicals as therapeutic modulators of radiation-induced signaling pathways offers a promising avenue for enhancing radioprotection and minimizing radiation-associated toxicities. By harnessing the power of nature, we may find the key to unlocking new ways to safeguard biological systems from the harmful effects of radiation fallouts.
 
The study findings were published in the peer reviewed journal: Antioxidants.
https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/11/1/49
 
For more on Phytochemicals and Radiation Fallouts, keep on logging to Thailand Medical News.
 
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